Links to Scientific Publications & Written Commentaries

An overwhelming number of studies have accumulated over the last 120 years examining the risk to humans from various lead exposure pathways. These results have definitively shown that ingestion or inhalation of lead dust and particles in sufficient quantity causes very harmful impacts to human physiology, especially nervous system function. Studies assessing the effects of lead exposure to wildlife have gained increased emphasis since 1950, while during the last 5 years, awareness of the potential for lead exposure to both wildlife and humans from inadvertent ingestion of lead bullet fragments has gained recognition by hunters, wildlife researchers, public health officials, and veterinarians. Further studies are currently underway to better understand the potential for health risks.

The following three sections contain links to various studies that have appeared in the scientific literature in regards to:

  1. Wildlife and lead ammunition
  2. Performance of non-lead and lead based ammunition
  3. Lead and lead ammunition impacts on humans


Wildlife Related Lead Studies

Two adult golden eagles feeding on a feral pig carcass.









A Review of Scientific Literature Examining Lead Poisoning From Ammunition Sources in Terrestrial Birds

A Global Update in 2008 of Literature Lead Poisoning in Terrestrial Birds From Ammunition Sources

Andean Condor Lead Dosing Study

Bald Eagle Lead Dosing Study

Turkey Vulture Lead Dosing Study

Bald Eagle Overwintering Mortality in Arkansas Due to Poisoning From Lead Shell Shot

Bald Eagle Mortality in Wisconsin Due to Poisoning From Lead Bullet Fragments

Examination of 12 Years of Data From University of MN Raptor Rehab Center Relating to Temporal Patterns of Lead Poisoning in Bald Eagles

Lead Poisoning of Bald & Golden Eagles in the Pacific Northwest

Documentation of Lead Poisoning of Stellar's Sea Eagles & White-tailed Eagles in Japan After Ingesting Deer Shot With Lead Bullets

Lead Bullet Residues in Prairie Dogs - Potential for Entering Wildlife Food Chains

Risks to Scavenging Hawks by Feeding on Richardson's Ground Squirrels Shot with Lead Bullets

Using Lead Isotope Analysis to Document Time Sequences of Lead Poisoning in California Condors

2003 Report That Reviews Potential Sources of Lead Poisoning in California Condors

Big Game Hunting and Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures

Reduction of Lead Exposures in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures after CA Non-lead Regulation

Patterns of Mortality in Free-ranging California Condors

Lead & Copper Bullet Fragmentation & Performance Studies

Bullet Fragmentation in White-tailed Deer and Implications for Scavenging Wildlife

Minnesota DNR Study That Tested Various Bullets to Determine Fragmentation

Wisconsin DNR Copper Bullet Study

Comparison of Lethality of Lead & Copper Bullets in Deer Control Operations

Details Associated With Why and How Rifle Bullets Fragment

Human Related Lead Studies

Examination of Presence of Lead Bullet Fragments in Commercially Processed Ground Venison

Health Effects of Low Dose-Levels of Lead Exposure in Adults and Children

Elevated Levels of Lead Documented in Canadian Hunters

Reductions of Blood Lead Levels in Canadian Hunters Following Cessation of Using Lead Shot

Lead Exposure in Humans in Greenland Consuming Game Meat

Use of Lead Isotopes to Analyze Blood Lead Levels in Canadian Hunters

September 2009 Description of Methods Used in North Dakota Study To Examine Prevalence of Lead Fragments in Game Meat

Guidance From North Dakota Department of Game & Fish Concerning CDC Study on Blood Lead Levels in Humans

Final Report from CDC on North Dakota Study Assessing Risk to Humans Who Eat Game Meat

Description of Various Techniques to Examine Presence of Lead Fragments in Ground Venison Sampled From Food Pantries in North Dakota

Wisconsin Health Department Examination of the Potential for Ingestion of Lead Fragments in Ground Venison